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South Africa

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OverviewEdit

South Africa has seen one of the most dramatic transformations of international image and reputation in recent history. Until 1994 the nation was governed under apartheid rule, and was widely condemned internationally for its violation of civil liberties and widespread racial violence. Since becoming fully democratic, however, South Africa has emerged as an international symbol of progress and leadership on the African continent. Building on its political and social transformation, South Africa continues to cultivate an image as a moral and political model for the rest of the Africa, and as a powerful political player in the global realm.

Vital InformationEdit

  • Capital: Pretoria
  • Population: 43,786,115 (July 2008 est.)
  • Government type: Republic [1]

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Government AgenciesEdit

Department of International relations and cooperationsEdit

South Africa’s Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) is responsible for managing and coordinating international interactions to serve the best interests of the nation. The department explicitly lists the following mission objectives:[2]

  • Through bilateral and multilateral interactions protect and promote South African national interests and values
  • Conduct and coordinate South Africa’s international relations and promote its foreign policy objectives
  • Monitor international developments and advise government on foreign policy and related domestic matters
  • Protect South Africa’s sovereignty and territorial integrity
  • Contribute to the formulation of international law and enhance respect for the provisions thereof
  • Promote multilateralism to secure a rules-based international system
  • Maintain a modern, effective and excellence driven department
  • Provide consular services to South African nationals abroad
  • Provide a world class and uniquely South African State Protocol service

DFA Public Diplomacy UnitEdit

A subdivision of the Department of Foreign Affairs, the Public Diplomacy unit focuses specifically on developing South Africa’s reputation both at home and internationally. In its 2006-2007 report, the unit defined its responsibilities according to the following functions:

  • Project a positive image of South Africa
  • Communicate an understanding of South Africa’s foreign policy goals, positions achievements and programs at home and abroad
  • Provide an effective support system for state visits
  • Provide an effective ceremonial events management system, as well as facilitate conferences and other official gatherings
  • Facilitate diplomatic interaction

Strategy Coordination and Project ManagementEdit

A sub-directorate of the Strategy Coordination and Operations Center, which is responsible for providing media monitoring services to the Minister, the Project Management unit’s mandate incorporates the following:

  • Overseeing development of a public diplomacy strategy and implementation thereof in South Africa and in foreign countries through South African missions
  • Creating synergy between the DFA and other relevant role-players in the marketing of South Africa
  • Providing project management services for cross-cutting public diplomacy projects

The International Marketing Council of South AfricaEdit

The Council manages Brand South Africa, developing marketing campaigns and providing resources for the promotion of the nation at home and abroad.

Media RelationsEdit

Effective media relations and management represent an integral part of any public diplomacy program, and South Africa has embraced the media as a platform for dialogue and the
DFApress
Minister Dr. Nkosazana Diamini Zuma during a live broadcast of the DFA Budget Vote in 2007
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projection of a positive national image. To this end, the nation employs a number of agencies, serving as subdivisions of the Public Diplomacy unit, whose mandate is specifically tailored to deal with media-related issues and opportunities. A 24-hour operations center gathers international news reports around the clock, serving both as an early warning system for major international crises or developments and as a constant gauge of South Africa’s standing in the world. Supplementing the 24-Hour Operations Center, the International News Scan regularly provides updates on political, diplomatic and economic developments, monitors the opinions of world leaders, and tracks developments in major International Organizations such as the United Nations, African Union and South African Development Community. Particular attention is paid to coverage of South Africa’s Department of Foreign Affairs as a broad measure of local and foreign public opinion. The information compiled by these news-analysis units is ultimately communicated to top-level South African officials around the world so that they can be prepared to deliver timely and appropriate responses to international developments as they occur.

In addition to news gathering and analysis, the Public Diplomacy Unit also provides speechwriting services, assisting officials to present a positive image at media events. In 2006, for instance, the unit contributed to speeches at the International Conference on Women and Economic Recovery in Africa, the 9th Joint Bilateral Commission between South Africa and Iran, as well as numerous other conferences, lectures, and speeches. The department’s Media Liaison Unit also organizes frequent press conferences and media briefings to “inform the nation and the world at large about South Africa’s endeavors internationally and [enhance] the country’s stature internationally.” Each of these speeches and presentations are carefully designed to present South Africa in the most positive light, often emphasizing the nation’s leadership role on the African continent, as when the nation led the Burundi Peace Talks in 2008. The Public Diplomacy Unit also emphasizes use of non-traditional media, specifically by intensifying use of the internet as a public diplomacy tool. In 2006 the unit focused efforts towards developing the Department of Foreign Affairs official website into an appealing and interactive source of information for both South African nationals and the international community at large.[3]

Public Diplomacy Activities and InitiativesEdit

The Rainbow NationEdit

We enter into a covenant that we shall build a society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity – a Rainbow Nation, at peace with itself and with the world -Nelson Mandela Inauguration Speech: May 10, 1994[4]

The most famous and ambitious public diplomacy project initiated by South Africa is the reinvention of its image in the aftermath of apartheid. Following the first fully-democratic elections in 1994, and the subsequent inauguration of Nelson Mandela as the nation’s first black president, the country began an intensive reconstruction of identity, with an emphasis on equality and respect among the nation’s diverse populations. Of course, major policy changes were the nation’s real revolution, but in terms of broadcasting the government’s new mission statement and strengthening confidence in South Africa’s transformation, public diplomacy was at the forefront of the government’s strategy. The concept of the “Rainbow Nation” was first coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu and became the rallying call of the new government’s attempt to unite the fractured nation. The catchphrase was just one part of a larger process of reinvention, however - one element in the wide range of symbolic acts that became hugely important as an affirmation of the nation’s transformation and the implications both for its citizens and for the world. Symbols such as the establishment of a new national anthem and a redesigned national flag became the cornerstone of South Africa’s campaign of reinvention. The significance of the flag, for instance, is described by the government in the following manner:

The central design of the flag, beginning at the flagpost in a 'V' form and flowing into a single horizontal band to the outer edge of the fly, can be interpreted as the convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity. The theme of convergence and unity ties in with the motto Unity is Strength of the previous South African Coat of Arms. [5]
Flag

In 1996 Marilyn Martin, Director of Art at the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, wrote of the momentum and power of such symbolism:

A new constitution is being instituted, the new flag is everywhere – on buildings, vehicles, lapels, ties, key rings, caps and clothing, it is painted on faces and exploited for advertising everything from film to motor cars. The national anthems are being sung,in as many as five languages, on every possible occasion. Old symbols are disappearing or are finding new meaning and acceptance, for example the Springbok, symbol of white rugby in the old South Africa, is owned by millions after the victory of the victory of the South African rugby team in the 1995 World Cup. [6]
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Archbishop Desmond Tutu, chair of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, reacts to testimony about crimes committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. (Sunday Times Photo)
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In addition to the establishment of such tangible symbols, the government initiated political and social projects intended to develop its image as a unifying force, stressing the need for cooperation and progress rather than retribution. At the forefront of this effort was the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), established as a forum for the redress of the crimes and tensions of the apartheid era. Headed by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the court-like body recorded thousands upon thousands of statements by victims of human rights abuses and granted amnesty to those who confessed committing politically-motivated crimes. The message, as expressed by then-president Mandela, was that “only the truth can put the past to rest,” and honesty and cooperation, rather than retribution, were the way towards unity and progress.[7]The media was extensively utilized as the promotional tool for the initiative. TRC Deputy Chairman Alex Boraine acknowledged this dynamic, saying:

The TRC owes a huge debt to the media of South Africa. Without coverage in newspapers and magazines and without the account of proceedings on TV screens and without the voice of the TRC being beamed through radio across the land, its work would be disadvantaged and immeasurable poorer'. It is very likely that the success of the TRC was partly a result of the media attention. The TRC depended on the media to communicate its message to the nation, and therefore the media were given a central position in the work of the TRC,right from the start. All public hearings were recorded by the media, both on audio and on video-tape. Radio and television transmitted a couple of hours each day of live TRC footage, and summaries of the day's events were given in the news and in special programmes. Also coverage by the written press was extensive, as articles on the TRC appeared almost daily.The TRC itself was well aware of the media importance and the Commission regularly issued press releases on hearings, amnesty decisions and other relevant information.[8]

The marketing aspect was certainly effective, with national and foreign press producing extensive coverage of the proceedings. Internationally, the commission was widely extolled for its focus on unity and reconciliation, and was generally "seen by the world as a 'compelling drama of confession, suffering and sometimes repentance.'" [9] In a 1996 article headlined “A Healing Truth in South Africa,” the New York Times demonstrated clear support of the commission:

No country can truly put dictatorship behind it until the victims can hear an official acknowledgment of their suffering and the state's role in it, and society learns how the dictatorship worked and how it won the complicity of ordinary citizens. South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission promises to go further than its predecessors toward those goals and its nation's healing.[10]

In 2008, the United Nations underscored international respect for the system when it recommended that Kenya implement a commission based on the South African model to investigate a burst violence following political elections. Despite being largely praised abroad, many South Africans saw the project as a weak stand that turned a blind eye, if not quite validated, the horrors of apartheid. Fueling this anger was the fact that while thousands of South Africans admitted guilt and were granted amnesty, very few top officials of the apartheid regime participated or were held accountable. Former president F.W. de Klerk, for instance, issued a statement of general apology, saying "I and many other leading figures in our party have already publicly apologized for the pain and suffering caused by former policies of the National Party. I reiterate these apologies," but stopped short of admitting any personal guilt or responsibility. [11] This disparity fostered a great deal of unrest among South Africans who felt they had been denied justice, particularly as many other leading figures of apartheid refused to participate in the commission in any capacity at all. Additionally, many argued that the project was founded upon Christian values of forgiveness that alienated and angered non-Christian South Africans.[12] In 2000, Hugo Van der Merwe, from The Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, addressed concerns about the commission’s efficacy, admitting its flaws but defending its overall integrity:

There are, I think, serious problems with the way the TRC was conceptualized and implemented. There has been a lot of understandable anger at the TRC as a whole and ::particularly from sections of society who want perpetrators punished… [Nevertheless] the success is firstly in terms of truth. The truth commission has established a fairly comprehensive official record of the past...This agreement about the past is an important and fundamental basis for reconciliation.[13]

Overall, the international community at large seems to share in Van der Merwe’s assessment, and the symbolic resonance of the Commission’s commitment to peaceful reconciliation remains one of the most powerful associations with South Africa. The symbolic resonance of the TRC and the Rainbow Nation campaign combined ultimately served to successfully recreate the international image of South Africa in a newly positive light. This establishment of cooperation and unity as the definitive qualities associated with the nation created the foundation on which future public diplomacy initiatives were based.

2010 Soccer World CupEdit

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Named host of the sporting event in May of 2004, South Africa has seized the opportunity to use the 2010 Soccer World Cup as a platform to raise it international standing and broadcast its assets to the world. The very fact that South Africa was awarded the honor makes an important statement in itself:

The choice of South Africa to play host to the world’s most popular sporting event represents a drastic shift in the perception of the country as it celebrates a decade of democracy. From 1964 until 1992, South Africa was banned from participating both in the World Cup and the Olympics because of the discriminatory policies of apartheid…Nelson Mandela, whose 27 years of imprisonment provided the moral force behind the dismantling of apartheid and the emergence of democracy, held the World Cup trophy aloft at a news conference in Zurich and said that he felt “like a young man of 50” [14] Since being awarded the hosting rights, the government has begun an extensive campaign to attract interest in the tournament and develop the nation’s public image. The implications of the event are highly significant, not only symbolically, but also at the economic level: officials predicted that the World Cup would add several billion dollars to the economy and create about 150,000 jobs, moving the nation closer to the Millennium Development Goals for 2014, which would in turn improve the image of South Africa as a fully developed and modernized country. [15] In its push to promote the World Cup in correspondence with the nation as a whole, the government is advertising the event as an opportunity not only to show off South Africa’s offerings and increase its international presence, but also to raise interest in the continent to the benefit of Africa as a whole. The 2010 Communication Project Management Unit made the following statement regarding the government’s goals for the event:

What Government aims for in having South Africa host the 2010 World Cup - and the reason ::that it is funding the infrastructure development the event demands - coincides with its ::priorities of economic growth and development. Aside from that, hosting the event will ::leave a lasting legacy, not just for this country but for Africa too…This country has a ::lot to offer in 2010. There's the legendary scenery, culture and wildlife, of course - but ::it is South Africa's colorful, warm and wonderful people that will distinguish this World ::Cup from past tournaments in other countries. And South Africans have promised to give ::visitors a welcome they never will forget: in fact, 2010 will be the biggest national ::party since the end of apartheid in 1994. The fun will include African arts and culture ::festival, with fan parks and other public viewing areas to bring the action to thousands ::more spectators.[16]

The internet has become a primary tool in the government’s public diplomacy efforts, with websites offering a vast range of promotional material and country information. (See FIFA). Photo galleries highlight sights and destinations to attract tourists, offering appealing descriptions of the tournament’s nine host cities, articles trumpet local and national efforts to prepare for the event, and reports on business and infrastructure also target potential investors. In addition, the government has paid particular attention to easing health and safety concerns with frequent reports on official implementation of security measures and medical preparedness.

South Africa is also taking advantage of the occasion to develop its image as a strong democracy, emphasizing the World Cup as an opportunity to improve economic conditions and social unity among the citizens of South Africa . SA 2010, one of the websites dedicated to promoting the World Cup, echoes the sentiment, saying,

Football is a team sport, and teamwork is what distinguishes a winning team from a losing ::one. It is in this nature of football sportsmanship, that the 2010 FIFA World Cup benefits ::will be shared among all Africans, especially those in the Southern Africa region. The ::entrepreneurial culture among ordinary people is reverberating across the borders.[17]

In order represent and validate this assertion, the government has planned a number of demonstrations of its commitment to its citizens, including the distribution of free or cheap tickets to local South Africans who would otherwise be unable to afford to attend the event.[18] As President Thabo Mbeki declared, the intention of the government is that “as we proceed on our way towards 2010, the continent and the African people will be better off than they are today, thanks to the role of football” [19]

Brand South AfricaEdit

South-Africa-Logo
The International Marketing Council of South Africa (IMC) was established in 2002 with a mandate to develop a “positive and compelling national brand image for South Africa”[20] Since then, the Council has initiated a number of campaigns intended to promote the nation both internally and globally. All efforts aim to tie into the vision of “Brand South Africa,” with its slogan of “Alive with Possibility.” The brand and its message aim to represent the attributes of South Africa’s desired image, determined by the IMC according to the following qualities: [21]

Values of Brand South Africa:

  • Ubuntu (“I am because we are”)
  • Respect for others
  • Hospitality
  • Warmth
  • Welcoming
  • A sense of perpetual optimism with a fervent belief in a better tomorrow
  • Open minded and positive
  • Honesty
  • Transparency
  • Approachable
  • Real

Personality of South Africa:

  • Energetic
  • Colorful and vibrant
  • Passionate
  • Embracing diversity
  • Vigorous
  • Responding readily
  • A people with a “can do” attitude
  • Open minded
  • Tenacious
  • Determined with a hunger to succeed
  • A sense of continual learning and creative ingenuity
  • Innovative
  • Fresh
  • Different
  • Practical
  • The country reflects a caring strength, female, nurturing and empathetic, a youthful spirit which is exploring and pioneering
Alive with Posibility(05:52)

Investment PromotionEdit

Working in collaboration with private sectors as well as other government agencies (which include the departments of Trade and Industry, Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs, and the Government Communication and Information System), the IMC covers a broad spectrum of promotional activities, but particularly emphasizes investment and tourism opportunities. To attract investors, the Council has focused on broadcasting consistent messages to potential investors, The following three key points were stressed in a 2005 conference in Europe, and have remain fundamental in South Africa’s appeal to investors: [22]

  1. South Africa provides a solid business foundation with sound macro-economic policies (Emphasis is placed on infrastructure, fiscal policy, macro-economic stability, unified vision of government, business and labor policies)
  2. South Africa offers highly developed IT and Telecommunications Infrastructure
  3. South Africa is politically and socially stable (Emphasis is placed on Black Economic Empowerment charters, HIV/Aids, education, and Crime Management initiatives)

The IMC has made extensive use of advertising campaigns intended to showcase their business potential. In 2004, for instance, full-page advertisements were placed in prominent global business magazines such as Fortune and the Economist, displaying quips such as “If this page was developing as fast as our economy, it would be a billboard,” and “350 days of sunshine could be just what your business needs.” The goal, according to the IMC, is to “target potential investors, citing the performance of the economy and the rising number of multinational firms setting up base in South Africa.”[23] Media opportunities are also a pillar of the campaigns, with an emphasis on sheer volume to raise South Africa’s prominence. In 2004, for example, South African “brand ambassadors” met about 2,000 counterparts during meetings in the United States that included investor conferences in Chicago, Atlanta and New York. They also met with US talk show host Oprah Winfrey and editors from Forbes magazine, among others, communicating cohesive messages on business issues. “The scale made it powerful,” said IMC CEO Yvonne Johnston, who also said that similar efforts could be initiated in various countries around the world.

SA info

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London Taxi Cab Campaign
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Print ad
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Tourism PromotionEdit

With regard to tourism, South Africa already enjoys high popularity, particularly among European visitors, but the IMC and Brand South Africa are continually intensifying efforts to increase tourism and raise the nation’s international profile as a desirable destination. Heading this mission is South African Tourism (SAT), with its expressed vision “For South Africa to be the preferred tourist destination in the world, in order to maximize the economic potential of tourism for the country and its people.”[24] In 2005, the organization set out the following goals to advance its interests:

  1. Publicity and leverage around consumer events that create demand
  2. Maintain and support strategic media relationships
  3. Encourage positive media coverage of South Africa among the target markets
  4. Entrench the message of South Africa as being a value-for-money, all year round destination
  5. Continued communication around the brand pillars using functional and emotional benefits relevant to the international market

The IMC employs a wide variety of promotional strategies, with a particular emphasis on eye-catching advertising. In 2004, the London Taxi Cab campaign was launched to attract European visitors, with ten taxis used as mobile billboards for the duration of 12 months: Eight of the taxis are in the traditional black of the London cab and two are in a bright sky blue to signify the color of the South African sky to would-be tourists. All have the flag and Brand South Africa's "Alive with Possibility" logo on their roofs, providing an unusual sight for office-workers and commuters on the upper-level of double-decker buses. Slogans along the sides of the taxis promote South Africa as a tourist destination and highlight the achievements of the economy and the country's huge potential as an investment destination. ("It would have been quicker to assemble this taxi in South Africa" ... "If this taxi was developing as fast as our economy it would be a bus" ... on one of the blue taxis: "In South Africa the sky matches this taxi 365 days a year" ... on the doors of one of the taxis: "We'll do everything we can to open them for you" ...) The taxis were also used to ferry South African VIPs, sports people, musicians, ministers and officials across London in an endless zig-zag promotion of South Africa as one of the world's most exciting destinations for tourism, trade and investment.[25]

Marketing MaterialsEdit

In addition to its official campaigns, the IMC offers a range of promotional material to be used by private organizations, underscoring its emphasis on making the success of South Africa a popular effort that mobilizes locals and visitors alike. The official Brand South Africa website (See Brand South Africa)offers the following resources:

  • The South African Story: “A booklet revealing South Africa’s defining features through a collection of compelling and mind-opening facts, figures and anecdotes on trade, investment and tourism”
  • Talking points serve as a “guide to help individuals explain the progress South Africa is making in addressing some of the challenges facing the country. While mainly intended for business travelers abroad, it can be used by anyone putting together a presentation or in discussions with people overseas as well as visitors to our country.”
  • Videos and radio advertisements (See link for Brand South Africa's TV ads and more)
  • MediaClub: a resource for journalists in the form of a database of positive news articles concerning South Africa

Internal PromotionEdit

While much of the IMC’s marketing efforts focus on the international audience, great attention is also paid to “building and sustaining national pride and patriotism”[26] The effort is lead by the Domestic Mobilization unit of the IMC, which has initiated a number of projects aimed at developing national confidence. Among these is the Movement for Good campaign, a project to collect views and stories from South Africans about their vision of the nation’s future. According the IMC “the campaign is about social conversations, difficult or easy. This is the beginning of a journey for the country.” The project also involves TV and radio segments that highlight inspirational personal stories. Additional campaigns include the Brand Champion project, which trains individuals and countries to support and promote Brand South Africa values.[27]

Other Public Diplomacy ActivitiesEdit

International Media ForumEdit

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Nelson Mandela addresses the International Media Forum South Africa delegation
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The IMC is a corporate sponsor of the International Media forum, an annual gathering of media practitioners, businesspeople and governments where issues affecting the coverage of South Africa, both international and local, are discussed. More than 400 editors from around the world attended the World Editors’ Forum and the World Congress of Newspapers in Cape Town in 2007, marking the highest attendance to the event so far. In 2008, the forum is to be held in Göteborg, Sweden. [28]

16 Days of ActivismEdit

Participating in the global campaign to end violence against women, South Africa expanded the mission statement to extend to combating violence against children as well. The intent, as expressed by the government, was to “[challenge] South Africans to declare a truce on violence against women and children – and, ultimately, to make it a permanent one”[29]The campaign also helped to further develop South Africa’s reputation as a leader of moral progress and development through cooperation with international organizations.

South Africa DayEdit

In January of 2006, the Royal Society of Britain, the former colonial power in the nation, held “South Africa Day.” The two-day event focused on South Africa’s scientific and technological achievements, and “aimed to stimulate closer links between South African and UK scientists”[30]

Heritage MonthEdit

September is Heritage Month in South Africa, celebrating the nation’s historical significance, particularly in terms of its fossil record and cultural and genetic heritage. Activities for the month include field trips to fossil parks, World Heritage Sites and museums, public lectures and open days at research institutions.[31]

Continuing Obstacles and ConclusionEdit

The transformation of South Africa’s image since the apartheid era marks one of the most impressive public diplomacy efforts in the world. Due in large part to former President
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South Africans celebrate their heritage with a flag parade
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Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu’s commitment to the vision of a Rainbow Nation, it reversed the country’s position in the international system from one of moral condemnation to one of social and political respect. Despite this progress, however, major obstacles still remain. In 2001 a public opinion report commissioned by the IMC stated the following: On the one hand the “new South Africa” is still regarded as a successful model to overcome the divisions of the country and to provide the conditions for building a promising future for all South Africans, black and white. As a tourist place South Africa is regarded to be one of the most attractive countries around the world, although safety and security warnings for tourists are a normal part of travel information. On the other hand, the initial attraction and positive assessment of the new Government is fading away and seem to be replaced by a more critical view. This emphasizes economic instability, social conflicts – not only between the black majority and the white minority, but in particular within the black population – decline of the Rand, the crime rate and HIV-infection/AIDS death rate a major economic and social problems.

With the 2010 World Cup on the horizon, South Africa is intensifying efforts to ready the nation for scrutiny under the global eye. Hefty challenges certainly remain, but in the true spirit of Brand South Africa’s “Alive with Possibility,” the nation, with the help of a broad range of departments and individuals, is doggedly pursuing its ambitious mission of raising the nation’s standing in the international system to the benefit of all South Africans, and ultimately, as President Mbeki declared in 2005, “the achievement of the goal of a better life for the peoples of Africa and the rest of the world.”[32]

South Africa in the NewsEdit

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Further ReadingEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. • "South Africa." The World Factbook. 19 Jun 2008. Central Intelligence Agency. 25 Jun 2008 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html>.
  2. • "Programme 3:Protocol and Public Diplomacy." Annual Report 2006-07. Department of Foreign Affairs. 23 Jun 2008 <http://www.dfa.gov.za/department/report_2006-2007/annual%20report.%20pg%20209-233.pdf>.
  3. • "Programme 3:Protocol and Public Diplomacy." Annual Report 2006-07. Department of Foreign Affairs. 23 Jun 2008 <http://www.dfa.gov.za/department/report_2006-2007/annual%20report.%20pg%20209-233.pdf>.
  4. • Martin, Marilyn. "The Rainbow Nation- Identity and Transformation." Oxford Art Journal Vol. 19(1996) 26 Jun 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/sici?sici=0142-6540(1996)19%3A1%3C3%3ATRNIAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X>.
  5. • "National Symbols." South African Government Information. 28 Nov 2007. 23 Jun 2008 <http://www.info.gov.za/aboutgovt/symbols/flag.htm>.
  6. • Martin, Marilyn. "The Rainbow Nation- Identity and Transformation." Oxford Art Journal Vol. 19(1996) 26 Jun 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/sici?sici=0142-6540(1996)19%3A1%3C3%3ATRNIAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X>.
  7. • Barrow, Greg. "South Africans Reconciled?." BBC News 30 Oct 1998 24 Jun 2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/truth_and_reconciliation/142673.stm>.
  8. • Verdoolaege, Annelies . "Media Representations of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission and their Commitment to Reconciliation." TRC Research Website. Jun 2003. 25 Jun 2008 <http://cas1.elis.ugent.be/avrug/trc/03_06.htm>.
  9. • Gettleman, Jeffrey. "Death Toll in Kenya 1,000, but Talks Reach Crucial Phase." The New York Times 06 Feb 2008 25 Jun 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/06/world/africa/06kenya.html?scp=5&sq=south+africa+truth+and+reconciliation&st=nyt>.
  10. • "A Healing Truth in South Africa." The New York Times 24 Aug 1996 25 Jun 2008 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D02E3D81639F937A1575BC0A960958260&scp=12&sq=south+africa+%22truth+and+reconciliation%22&st=nyt>.
  11. • Barrow, Greg. "South Africans Reconciled?." BBC News 30 Oct 1998 24 Jun 2008 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/truth_and_reconciliation/142673.stm>.
  12. • Gettleman, Jeffrey. "Death Toll in Kenya 1,000, but Talks Reach Crucial Phase." The New York Times 06 Feb 2008 25 Jun 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/06/world/africa/06kenya.html?scp=5&sq=south+africa+truth+and+reconciliation&st=nyt>.
  13. • Gakzunzi, David. "The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa." Gouvernance en Afrique. 25 Jun 2008 <http://www.afrique-gouvernance.net/fiches/dph/fiche-dph-171.html>.
  14. • Longman. Jere. "South Africa Is Named Host of 2010 World Cup," The New York Times 16 May 2004. 26 Jun 2008 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D02E1D6173FF935A25756C0A9629C8B63&scp=13&sq=2010+world+cup&st=nyt>.
  15. • Longman. Jere. "South Africa Is Named Host of 2010 World Cup," The New York Times 16 May 2004. 26 Jun 2008 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D02E1D6173FF935A25756C0A9629C8B63&scp=13&sq=2010+world+cup&st=nyt>.
  16. • "Government 2010." South Africa 2010. 2008. South African Government Communication and Information System. 23 Jun 2008 <http://www.sa2010.gov.za/government/aims.php>.
  17. • "People's 2010." Visit SA 2010. 2007. SA Tourism. 25 Jun 2008 <http://www1.southafrica.net/Cultures/en-US/2010.southafrica.net/TheRoadTo2010/ThePeoples2010/>.
  18. • Associated Press. "S. Africans to Receive World Cup Tickets Free," The New York Times 25 Nov 2007. 23 Jun 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/25/sports/soccer/25soccer.html?_r=1&scp=10&sq=2010+world+cup&st=nyt&oref=slogi>.
  19. • "People's 2010." Visit SA 2010. 2007. SA Tourism. 25 Jun 2008 <http://www1.southafrica.net/Cultures/en-US/2010.southafrica.net/TheRoadTo2010/ThePeoples2010/>.
  20. • Brand South Africa http://www.brandsouthafrica.com/.
  21. • Brand South Africa http://www.brandsouthafrica.com/.
  22. • Brand South Africa http://www.brandsouthafrica.com/.
  23. • "Brand South Africa Goes Global." 27 Sept 2004. SouthAfrica.info. 23 Jun 2008 <http://www.southafrica.info/what_happening/news/features/imc-printadverts.htm>.
  24. • Christelis, Desiree. "Country Reputation Management: Identifying drivers of South Africa's reputation in German media." April 2006. University of Stellenbosch. 24 Jun 2008 <http://ir.sun.ac.za/dspace/bitstream/10019/37/1/ChristD.pdf>.
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  32. • Brand South Africa http://www.brandsouthafrica.com/.

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