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Public Diplomacy

Principal Organs of the UN

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Trusteeship CouncilEdit

The Trusteeship Council was formed to help Trust Territories, designated by members of the council, obtain self-determination through either the formation of an independent state or the integration into a neighboring state. It was a dominant actor in the decolonization period of the middle 20th century. The Council was indefinitely suspended in 1994 after the independence of the nation of Palau, the final remaining member of the Trust Territories. The Trusteeship Council consisted of five members: China, United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and France.

Former Trust Territories and their current status:

Togoland (British) – Formed Ghana (1957)Somaliland (Italian) – Formed Somalia (1960)
Togoland (French) - Formed Togo (1960)Cameroons (French) – Formed Cameroon (1960)
Cameroons (British) – Northern territory joined Nigeria, Southern territory joined Cameroon (1961)Tanganyika (British) – Independent in 1961, joined Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanzania (1964)
Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian) – Divided into Rwanda and Burundi (1962)Western Samoa (New Zealand) – Formed Samoa (1962)
Nauru (Australia, New Zealand, British) – Independence (1968)New Guinea (Australia) – United with the Territory of Papua to form Papua New Guinea (1975)
Federated States of Micronesia – Self-Governing Territory in free Association with the United States (1990)Republic of the Marshall Islands - Self-Governing Territory in free Association with the United States (1990)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands - Self-Governing Territory in free Association with the United States (1990)Palau - Self-Governing Territory in free Association with the United States (1994)

Security CouncilEdit

The Security Council handles any cases involving immediate threats to peace or security. While a peaceful means of ending conflict is desired, the Security Council may also apply proper enforcement, such as peace keeping forces, and issue sanctions against nations or parties.

There are five permanent members of the Security Council: China, France, Russian Federation, United States, and United Kingom. There are ten non-permanent members that rotate in two-year terms. Non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly and may not serve in consecutive terms.

Currrent non-permanent members include (with year of term):

Argentina (2006)Republic of the Congo (2007)
Denmark (2006)Ghana (2007)
Greece (2006)Japan (2006)
Peru (2007)Qatar (2007)
Slovakia (2007)United Republic of Tanzania (2006)

General Assembly Edit

The General Assembly is the main body of the United Nations, consisting of all 191 voting members. Its function is to discuss any social, economic or conflict brought before it, with the exception of cases brought before the Security Council. The General Assembly consists of six committees: disarmament and international security, economic and financial, social, humanitarian and cultural, special political and decolonization, administrative and budgetary, and legal. The General Assembly also has the power to create standing and ad hoc committees to discuss any cases brought to it.

Members of the General Assembly and Date of Admission:

Afghanistan -- (19 Nov. 1946)Albania -- (14 Dec. 1955)Algeria -- (8 Oct. 1962)
Andorra -- (28 July 1993)Angola -- (1 Dec. 1976)Antigua and Barbuda -- (11 Nov. 1981)
Argentina -- (24 Oct. 1945)Armenia -- (2 Mar. 1992)Australia -- (1 Nov. 1945)
Austria-- (14 Dec. 1955)Azerbaijan -- (2 Mar. 1992)Bahamas -- (18 Sep. 1973)
Bahrain -- (21 Sep. 1971)Bangladesh -- (17 Sep. 1974)Barbados -- (9 Dec. 1966)
Belarus -- (24 Oct. 1945)Belgium -- (27 Dec. 1945)Belize -- (25 Sep. 1981)
Benin -- (20 Sep. 1960)Bhutan -- (21 Sep. 1971)Bolivia -- (14 Nov. 1945)
Bosnia and Herzegovina -- (22 May 1992)Botswana -- (17 Oct. 1966)Brazil -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Brunei Darussalam -- (21 Sep. 1984)Bulgaria -- (14 Dec. 1955)Burkina Faso -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Burundi -- (18 Sep. 1962)Cambodia -- (14 Dec. 1955)Cameroon -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Canada -- (9 Nov. 1945)Cape Verde -- (16 Sep. 1975)Central African Republic -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Chad -- (20 Sep. 1960)Chile -- (24 Oct. 1945)China -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Colombia -- (5 Nov. 1945)Comoros -- (12 Nov. 1975)Congo (Republic of the) -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Costa Rica -- (2 Nov. 1945)Cote d'Ivoire -- (20 Sep. 1960)Croatia -- (22 May 1992)
Cuba -- (24 Oct. 1945)Cyprus -- (20 Sep. 1960)Czech Republic -- (19 Jan. 1993)
Democratic People's Republic of Korea -- (17 Sep. 1991)Democratic Republic of the Congo -- (20 Sep. 1960)Denmark -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Djibouti -- (20 Sep. 1977)Dominica -- (18 Dec. 1978)Dominican Republic -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Ecuador -- (21 Dec. 1945)Egypt -- (24 Oct. 1945)El Salvador -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Equatorial Guinea -- (12 Nov. 1968)Eritrea -- (28 May 1993)Estonia -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Ethiopia -- (13 Nov. 1945)Fiji -- (13 Oct. 1970)Finland -- (14 Dec. 1955)
France-- (24 Oct. 1945)Gabon -- (20 Sep. 1960)Gambia -- (21 Sep. 1965)
Georgia -- (31 July 1992)Germany -- (18 Sep. 1973)Ghana -- (8 Mar. 1957)
Greece -- (25 Oct. 1945)Grenada -- (17 Sep. 1974)Guatemala -- (21 Nov. 1945)
Guinea -- (12 Dec. 1958)Guinea-Bissau -- (17 Sep. 1974)Guyana -- (20 Sep. 1966)
Haiti -- (24 Oct. 1945)Honduras -- (17 Dec. 1945)Hungary -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Iceland -- (19 Nov. 1946)India -- (30 Oct. 1945)Indonesia -- (28 Sep. 1950)
Iran (Islamic Republic of) -- (24 Oct. 1945)Iraq -- (21 Dec. 1945)Ireland -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Israel -- (11 May 1949)Italy -- (14 Dec. 1955)Jamaica -- (18 Sep. 1962)
Japan -- (18 Dec. 1956)Jordan -- (14 Dec. 1955)Kazakhstan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Kenya -- (16 Dec. 1963)Kiribati -- (14 Sept. 1999)Kuwait -- (14 May 1963)
Kyrgyzstan -- (2 Mar. 1992)Lao People's Democratic Republic -- (14 Dec. 1955)Latvia -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Lebanon -- (24 Oct. 1945)Lesotho -- (17 Oct. 1966)Liberia -- (2 Nov. 1945)
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya -- (14 Dec. 1955)Liechtenstein-- (18 Sep. 1990)Lithuania -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Luxembourg-- (24 Oct. 1945)Madagascar -- (20 Sep. 1960)Malawi -- (1 Dec. 1964)
Malaysia-- (17 Sep. 1957)Maldives-- (21 Sep. 1965)Mali -- (28 Sep. 1960)
Malta -- (1 Dec. 1964)Marshall Islands -- (17 Sep. 1991)Mauritania -- (27 Oct. 1961)
Mauritius -- (24 Apr. 1968)Mexico -- (7 Nov. 1945)Micronesia (Federated States of) -- (17 Sep. 1991)
Monaco -- (28 May 1993)Mongolia -- (27 Oct. 1961)Morocco -- (12 Nov. 1956)
Mozambique -- (16 Sep. 1975)Myanmar -- (19 Apr. 1948)Namibia -- (23 Apr. 1990)
Nauru -- (14 Sept. 1999)Nepal -- (14 Dec. 1955)Netherlands -- (10 Dec. 1945)
New Zealand -- (24 Oct. 1945)Nicaragua -- (24 Oct. 1945)Niger -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Nigeria -- (7 Oct. 1960)Norway -- (27 Nov. 1945)Oman -- (7 Oct. 1971)
Pakistan -- (30 Sep. 1947)Palau -- (15 Dec. 1994)Panama -- (13 Nov. 1945)
Papua New Guinea -- (10 Oct. 1975)Paraguay -- (24 Oct. 1945)Peru -- (31 Oct. 1945)
Philippines -- (24 Oct. 1945)Poland -- (24 Oct. 1945)Portugal -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Qatar -- (21 Sep. 1971)Republic of Korea -- (17 Sep. 1991)Republic of Moldova -- (2 Mar. 1992)
Romania -- (14 Dec. 1955)Russian Federation -- (24 Oct. 1945)Rwanda -- (18 Sep. 1962)
Saint Kitts and Nevis -- (23 Sep. 1983)Saint Lucia -- (18 Sep. 1979)Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -- (16 Sep. 1980)
Samoa -- (15 Dec. 1976)San Marino -- (2 Mar. 1992)Sao Tome and Principe -- (16 Sep. 1975)
Saudi Arabia -- (24 Oct. 1945)Senegal -- (28 Sep. 1960)Serbia and Montenegro -- (1 Nov. 2000)
Seychelles -- (21 Sep. 1976)Sierra Leone -- (27 Sep. 1961)Singapore -- (21 Sep. 1965)
Slovakia -- (19 Jan. 1993)Slovenia -- (22 May 1992)Solomon Islands -- (19 Sep. 1978)
Somalia -- (20 Sep. 1960)South Africa -- (7 Nov. 1945)Spain -- (14 Dec. 1955)
Sri Lanka -- (14 Dec. 1955)Sudan -- (12 Nov. 1956)Suriname -- (4 Dec. 1975)
Swaziland -- (24 Sep. 1968)Sweden -- (19 Nov. 1946)Switzerland -- (10 Sep. 2002)
Syrian Arab Republic -- (24 Oct. 1945)Tajikistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)Thailand -- (16 Dec. 1946)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia -- (8 Apr. 1993)Timor-Leste -- (27 Sep. 2002)Togo -- (20 Sep. 1960)
Tonga -- (14 Sep. 1999)Trinidad and Tobago -- (18 Sep. 1962)Tunisia -- (12 Nov. 1956)
Turkey -- (24 Oct. 1945)Turkmenistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)Tuvalu -- (5 Sept. 2000)
Uganda -- (25 Oct. 1962)Ukraine-- (24 Oct. 1945)United Arab Emirates -- (9 Dec. 1971)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland-- (24 Oct. 1945)United Republic of Tanzania -- (14 Dec. 1961)United States of America -- (24 Oct. 1945)
Uruguay -- (18 Dec. 1945)Uzbekistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)Vanuatu -- (15 Sep. 1981)
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) -- (15 Nov. 1945)Viet Nam -- (20 Sep. 1977)Yemen -- (30 Sep. 1947)
Zambia -- (1 Dec. 1964)Zimbabwe -- (25 Aug. 1980)

Economic and Social CouncilEdit

The Economic and Social Council is the primary body of implementing and maintaining public diplomacy. It consists of numerous subsidiary agencies that are all specialized either by region or issue. ECOSOC may also create temporary and ad hoc committees to satisfy any issue at hand. In addition to the functioning and regional committees, the majority of programmes and other agencies report to ECOSOC, including: the World Bank Group, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization.

International Court of JusticeEdit

The International Court of Justice is the body of law within the UN. It has two functions: the settlement of disputes between two states or agents, and to address issues brought forth by other agencies within the UN in the form of advisory opinions. In cases of contention, only states (UN recognized), may be party to the court. In advisory opinions, agencies such as the World Bank Group or the Security Council may be included with the states.

The court consists of fifteen judges with nine-year terms. The judges are selected on a three-year rotating calendar and are selected by members of the General Assembly and the Security Council. Although each judge is represented by a state (no state may have more than one judge on the ICJ), he or she is not a representative of the government, but rather an independent jurist.

SecretariatEdit

The Secretariat serves as the administrator of policy and action in the United Nations. It is also the main body that promotes communication between all member states and agencies It is run by the Secretary-General, who is elected by the General Assembly, upon the recommendation of the Security Council, to a five-year renewable term. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who has served since 1 January 2007.

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