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Most scholars date the first usage of "public diplomacy" to 1965 when Edmund Gullion, a career diplomat used the term in connection with the foundation of the Edward R. Murrow Center at Tuft’s University Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. The first Murrow Center pamphlet described the practice of public diplomacy as:
"the influence of public attitudes on the formation and execution of foreign policies. It encompasses dimensions of international relations beyond traditional diplomacy . . . [including] the cultivation by governments of public opinion in other countries; the interaction of private groups and interests in one country with those of another . . . (and) the transnational flow of information and ideas"1.